Answer one of the following:
1. Analyze the methods used by leaders such as Cavour and Bismarck to achieve national unity. How do they compare with efforts during the revolutions of 1848?
2. Analyze the various causes of the rise of imperialism during this period.
3. How did cities change during the second half of the nineteenth century? Consider physical, social, and cultural aspects of cities in this period. How did different classes fit into the new urban landscape?
4. How might it be argued that several nations should bear responsibility for plunging the West into World War I? Which countries, if any, do you think were most responsible?